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Instruction for Authors


Childhood Kidney Diseases (Child Kidney Dis) is an international, peer-reviewed biannually journal of medicine published in English. It is the official publication of The Korean Society of Pediatric Nephrology (KSPN). Child Kidney Dis covers clinical and research works relevant to all aspects of pediatric nephrology. The journal aims to serve pediatricians through the prompt publication of significant advances in pediatric nephrology and to rapidly disseminate recently updated knowledge to the public. Additionally, it will initiate dynamic, international, academic discussions concerning the major topics related to pediatric nephrology.

Manuscripts for submission to Child Kidney Dis should be prepared according to the following instructions. Child Kidney Dis follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (, if otherwise not described below.

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals’ (, Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors), ‘Guidelines on Good Publication’ (, Committee on publication ethics), ‘Committee on Publication Ethics’, and ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’ (, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [ICMJE]) can be applied

1. Author and authorship
An author is considered as an individual who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study and whose authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications. The ICMJE has recommended the following criteria for authorship: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet criteria 1, 2, and 3. These criteria are applicable to those journals that distinguish the authors from other contributors.

2. Duplicate publication
Manuscripts are only accepted for publication in journals if they have not been published elsewhere. Manuscripts published in this journal should not be submitted for publication elsewhere. If the author(s) wishes to obtain a duplicate or secondary publication for various other reasons, such as for readers of a different language, he/she should obtain approval from the editors-in-chief of both the first and second journal.

3. Conflict of interest
Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence his/her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). All authors should disclose their conflicts of interest, i.e., 1) financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony), 2) personal relationship, 3) academic competition, and 4) intellectual passion. These conflicts of interest must be included as a footnote on the title page or in the acknowledgement section. Each author should certify the disclosure of any conflict of interest with his/her signature.

4. Protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent
The ICMJE has recommended the following statement for the protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent: The rights of patients should not be infringed without written informed consent. Identifying details should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless it is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or his/her parents or guardian) provides written informed consent for publication. However, complete patient anonymity is difficult to achieve; therefore, informed consent should be obtained in the event that anonymity of the patient is not assured. For example, masking the eye region of patients in photographs is not adequate to ensure anonymity. If identifying characteristics are changed to protect anonymity, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should take note of this. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the published article.

5. Protection of human and animal rights
While reporting experiments that involve human subjects, it should be stated that the study was performed according to the Helsinki Declaration ( and approved by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) or the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the institution where the experiment was performed. A written informed consent should be obtained from all subjects. In the case of an animal study, a statement should be provided indicating that the experiment process, such as the breeding and the use of laboratory animals, was approved by the REC of the institution where the experiment was performed or that it does not violate the rules of the REC of the institution or the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, The authors should preserve raw experimental study data for at least 1 year after the publication of the paper and should present this data if required by the editorial board.

6. Registration of the clinical research
Any research that deals with clinical trial should be registered to the primary national clinical trial registration site such as, or other sites accredited by World Health Organization or ICMJE.

All published papers become the permanent property of the Child Kidney Dis. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by the Child Kidney Dis. They also follow the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License available from: For any commercial use of material from the open access version of the journal, permission must be obtained from the Child Kidney Dis.
Every author should sign the authorship responsibility and copyright transfer agreement form, attesting that he/she fulfills the authorship criteria. Authors are required to identify their contributions to the work described in the manuscript. The manuscript, when published, will become the property of the journal.

Authors should submit manuscripts via the electronic manuscript management system ( of Child Kidney Dis. Manuscripts should be submitted by the corresponding author or first author, who should indicate the address, phone & facsimile number, and e-mail address for correspondence in the title page of the manuscript. The revised manuscript should be submitted through the same web system under the same identification numbers.

1. Online submission process
1) Go to
2) Log in.
3) Click on ‘new submissions’.
4) Check and confirm ‘author’s manuscript check list’.
5) Upload manuscript file and copyright transfer form.
6) Your submission is completed. You will receive your ergistration number or return notice via email.

Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication. Send all correspondence regarding submitted manuscripts to:
Address: 50 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-2050, Fax: +82-2-393-9118
2. No editorial fee is required.

Child Kidney Dis reviews all received materials. Manuscripts are sent to the three most relevant investigators, for reviews of the contents. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its clinical and scientific significance. An initial decision will normally be made within 2 weeks after the agreement of review by the reviewers, and the reviewers’ comments will then be sent to the corresponding authors. Revised manuscripts must be submitted online by the corresponding author. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 2 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. The editorial office should be notified if additional time is needed or if an author chooses not to submit a revision. The editorial committee makes decisions concerning editing, revision, and acceptance or rejection, and editing may include shortening an article, reducing the number of illustrations or tables, or changing the paper's format or the order of the manuscript. The editor selects referees results of the review will be classified as follows:
. Accepted: The manuscript will be forwarded to the publisher without further corrections.
. Minor revisions: The author should address the comments from the reviewers, which will be confirmed by the reviewers.
. Major revisions: The author should address the comments from the reviewers and make the appropriate corrections for review by the three reviewers.
. Rejection: When one out of the three reviewers rejects the manuscript, the final decision is made by the editorial committee.

All authors are required to affirm the following statements prior to their manuscript being considered:

1) If the manuscript doesn't have a new result or conclusion, then it shouldn't have the same title as a previously published article.
2) Once the case has been published in an original paper, it may not be reproduced as a case report. However, only in circumstances in which a novel diagnostic method, a novel therapeutic trial, or a previously unknown accompanying condition is found will the editorial board determine the possibility of acceptance.
3) Clinical trials on drugs with commercial implications will be reviewed by the proper subcommittee before being reviewed for publication.
4) Case reports of previously published cases will not be accepted. The editorial board will make an exception only if the case is very rare. The index of the Child Kidney Dis should be reviewed before submission of case reports.
5) Rejected manuscripts may not be resubmitted.
6) If the author does not address the comments made by the reviewer or if the manuscript does not follow the guidelines provided, it will be rejected.


1. Publication type
Child Kidney Dis publishes invited review articles, review articles, original articles, case reports, letters to editor, and so on.

1) Invited review articles offer concise reviews of important subjects in pediatric nephrology. Review articles are accepted after editorial evaluation. It should have following structures: Title page, Unstructured abstract and Keywords, Main text (Introduction, Body text, Conclusion), Conflict of interest, Acknowledgments (if necessary), References, Tables, Figures, and Legends. No more than 100 references can be cited.
2) Original articles are papers containing the results of clinical or laboratory investigations, which are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers. The manuscript for original articles should be organized in the following order: Title page, Structured abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conflict of interest, Acknowledgments (if necessary) References, Tables, Figures, and Legends. No more than 35 references can be cited.
3) Case reports as well as brief communications deal with issues of importance to pediatric nephrology research. Case report should be organized in the following order: Title page, Unstructured abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Case report, Discussion, Conflict of interest, Acknowledgments (if necessary), References, Tables, Figures, and Legends. No more than 15 references can be cited.

2. General guideline
. A manuscript must be written in English. Authors (particularly non-native English speakers) who submit the original article or case report in English should check their manuscript by professional editing service prior to submission. Several commercial vendors provide such services, including American Journal Experts, Nature Publishing Group, etc. It will not be returned to the corresponding author because of incorrect formatting.
. The text of the manuscript, including tables and their footnotes and figure legends, must be double-spaced and in standard 12-point font on A4 size.
. Always submit your manuscript in the MS Word format (doc or docx).
. All pages should be numbered consecutively starting with the title page.
. Drug and chemical names should be stated in standard chemical or generic nomenclature.
. Units of measure should be presented according to the International System (SI) of units. All units must be preceded by one space except percentage (%) and temperature (°C).
. Descriptions of genes or related structures in a manuscript should include the names and official symbols provided by the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee.
. Statistical expression: mean and standard deviation should be described as mean±SD, and mean and standard error as mean±SE. P-values should be described as P<0.05 or P=0.003.
. Generic and brand name of medicine: for medicine, use generic names. If a brand name should be used, insert it in parentheses after the generic name.

3. Reporting guidelines for specific study designs
For the specific study design, such as randomized control studies, studies of diagnostic accuracy, meta-analyses, observational studies, and non-randomized studies, it is recommended that the authors follow the reporting guidelines listed in the following table.

1. Title page
This should contain the title of the article, full names of authors, and institutional affiliation(s). If several authors and institutions are listed, it should be made clear with which
department and institution each author is affiliated. For a multicenter study, indicate each individual’s affiliation using a superscript Arabic number 1,2,3.... The corresponding author or first author should be clearly designated. In a separate paragraph, an address for correspondence including the name of the corresponding author and his/her degree, address (institutional affiliation, city, zip code and country), telephone and facsimile numbers, and e-mail address should be given. The running title, of 10 words or less, should not be a declarative or interrogative sentence.

2. Abstract and keywords
The abstract should be concise (less than 250 words) and describe concisely the Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusion, in a structured format. Abbreviations, if needed, should be kept to an absolute minimum, and given with proper identifications. Abstracts for case reports and review articles provide within one paragraph the purpose, methods, important results, and derived conclusion of the study in an unstructured format, but carry the same word count restrictions. Below the abstract, authors should provide, and identify as such, up to 5 keywords or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross-indexing the article and can be published with the abstract. Use terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus; if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms, present terms may be used. The first letter of a keyword should be capitalized (e.g., Nephrotic syndrome, Hematuria).

3. Main text
1) Introduction: General enough references to the most pertinent papers, to inform readers; and others relevant findings are described here. It also includes the specific question driving the authors particular investigation.
2) Materials and methods: We endorse the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki and expect that all investigations involving human materials have been performed in accordance with these principles. For animal experimentation, the Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals, approved by the American Physiological Society, must have been observed. An explanation of the experimental methods should be concise and sufficient for repetition by other qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail; however, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures need full descriptions. The sources of special chemicals or preparations should be given (i.e., name of company, city and state, and country). Methods of statistical analyses and criteria of significance level should be described. In case reports, case histories, or case descriptions, replace the Materials and methods section as well as the Results section.
3) Results: This part should be presented logically using text, tables, and illustrations. Excessive textual repetition of table or figure contents should be avoided.
4) Discussion: The data should be interpreted concisely without repeating materials already presented in the Results section. Speculation is permitted, but it must be supported by the authors presented data and be well-founded.
5) Conflict of interest: The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the editor of the authors' potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in the manuscript even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems (e.g., employment/ affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, stockownership or options, royalties, or patents filed, received, or pending).
6) Acknowledgments: All persons who have made substantial contributions, but who are not eligible as authors, are named in the acknowledgments section. Information concerning sources of financial support should be given in this section.

4. References
References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the main text. Each reference should be cited as superscript Arabic number 1), 1, 2), or 1-3), at the end of the related sentence in the text. Reference citations in the main text should be made with consecutive numbers in parenthesis (Vancouver style). In the Reference section, they should be listed in the order of citation within the main text, together with the corresponding number.
. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and correct text citations. . Papers in press may be listed among the references with the journal name and tentative year of publication. . Unpublished data or personal communications can be listed only with the author's written permission. . Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers ( Examples of reference style
Journal article
1. Choe JY, Jang KM, Hwang YJ, Choi BS, Park JK, Yoon YR, et al. Effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus during pediatric kidney transplantation: A single center study. Child Kidney Dis 2014;18(1):18-23.

Book & Book chapter
2. Volpe JJ. Neurology of the newborn. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier, 2008.
3. Hong CE. Textbook of pediatrics. 9th ed. Seoul: Korea Textbook Publishing Co., 2008.
4. Pan ES, Cole FS, Weinttrub PS. Viral infections of the fetus and newborn. In: Taeusch HW, Ballard RA, Gleason CA, editors. Avery’s diseases of the newborn. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005:495-529.

5. International Committee of Medical Journal Editor. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication [Internet]. Philadelphia: International Committee of Medical Journal Editor; c2009 [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from:

5. Table
Tables should be typed double-spaced on separate pages within manuscript, and they should be titled and numbered in Arabic numerals in the order of their first citation in the text. Each column should be given a short heading. Only the first letter of the first word in each row and column should be capital letters. If numerical measurements are given, the unit of measurement should be included in the each heading. The statistical significance of observed differences in the data should be indicated by the appropriate statistical analysis. All abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. For special remarks, superscripts *, †, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡... should be used.

6. Figure
The author is responsible for submitting prints that are of sufficient quality to permit accurate reproduction, and for approving the final color galley proof. All photographs should be correctly exposed and sharply focused. The entire expense of reproducing color photographs will be charged to the author; current estimates for color reproduction can be obtained from the Editorial Office. Child Kidney Dis assumes no responsibility for the quality of the photography as it appears in the Journal. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photographs should contrast with the background. A legend for each light microscopic photograph should include name of stain and magnification (i.e., H&E, ×400); electron microscopic photography should have an internal scale marker. All kinds of figures may be reduced, enlarged, or trimmed for publication by the editor. All the legends for figures should be double-spaced. Do not use a separate sheet for each legend. Figure legends should describe briefly the data shown, explain any abbreviations or reference points in the photograph. The figures should be numbered in the form Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig. 3. Related figures should be combined into one figure, with each subfigure denoted by the letters, A, B, C, and so on, following the Arabic number of the main figure (i.e., Fig. 1A; Fig. 1B, C; Fig. 1A-C). Figures should be submitted as Tiff or EPS file format. If the only possible file format is JPEG, it must be in highest quality with minimum compression. It is recommended to size original figure widths to 4 inches wide. The minimum requirements for digital resolution are:
-900 DPI/PPI for black and white images, such as line drawings or graphs.
-300 DPI/PPI for picture-only photographs.
-600 DPI/PPI for photographs containing pictures and line elements, i.e., text labels, thin lines, arrows.

1. Final version upload
When accepted for publication, the authors’ institutional affiliations should be inserted into the text of the final revised manuscript and uploaded to the online submission system. Files containing figures must be named according to the figure number (ex: Fig. 1. jpg).

2. Galley proof
After corrections have been made, an accepted manuscript will be sent to the publisher for printing. The proof may be revised more than once by the corresponding author, if needed. The author should double-check for corrections in the content, title, affiliation, capitalization, locations of figures, and references. Corresponding authors are responsible for further corrections made after printing.

3. Page charge
A minimum of 50 offprints will be delivered after payment. Reprints are available at any time after publication; however, reprints ordered after publication may be subject to increases in price. A page charge will be requested to the corresponding author and color photographs require an additional fee.

4. Confirmation of acceptance
Once the manuscript is at the publisher, confirmation of acceptance by the Child Kidney Dis may be issued. Registering for the board exams, a receipt of confirmation may be ordered for the accepted manuscript.

□ A covering letter stating the material has not been published previously, and will not be submitted for publication elsewhere, and stating conflicts of interest of all listed authors, if any.
□ Each author has read the manuscript and agrees with this submission.
□ Copyright transform has been signed by all authors.
□ Written permission from publishers to reproduce or adapt previously published illustrations or tables included.
□ Informed consent forms for identifiable patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees are included.
□ The manuscript must be written by MS Word, typing with 12-point font and double-space on A4 size.
□ Sequence of title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references, tables and figure legends. All pages should be numbered consecutively starting with the title page.
□ Title page with article title, authors full name(s) and affiliation, address for correspondence (including telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address), running title (less than 10 words), and footnotes, if any.
□ Abstract in structured format for original article and in unstructured format for review articles and case reports (maximum of 250 words), and keywords as in MeSH.
□ All table and figure numbers are found in the text.
□ References listed in a proper format. Check that all references listed in the references section are cited in the text and vice versa.
□ No more than 100 references are cited in review article.
□ No more than 35 references are cited in original article.
□ No more than 15 references are cited in case report.
□ Include a title for each table and figure (a brief phrase no longer than 10 to 15 words) and explanatory legend as needed.
□ Generic names are used for all drugs. Trade names are avoided.
□ Research or project support/funding is noted in acknowledgments section.

Copyright© Childhood Kidney Diseases. All rights reserved.
Editorial Office
50 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
TEL : +82-2-2228-2050    FAX : +82-2-393-9118   E-mail :      Powered by M2community